160 years ago today - Jul 31, 1861

Major James H. Carleton writes to Army Headquarters: "Nearly all Mormons are foreigners. Among these are Welsh, English, Norwegians, Swedes, some Germans, and a few French. They are evidently of the lowest and most ignorant grade of the people in the several countries from whence they have come. Mixed in with these are a few low, unprincipled Americans. The most intelligent and crafty of these, commencing with Brigham Young, are the directors and rulers of the whole mess. . . their government is solely a hierarchy, and notwithstanding, in theory, they are assumed to be a population obedient to the laws of our common country, practically they score and deride, and set at defiance all laws that interfere with their safety or interest, save those promulgated by the great council of the church." Brigham Young's office journal records: " Br[other] W[illia]m Clayton read the Pony dispatch to the members of the Club. The first Presidency were present. This dispatch noticed considerable loss of life [in the Civil War], and confusion[.] [T]he Company took comfort in the reflection that their old enemies were getting fewer in number."

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